Pheromones Experiments For Maximum Insect Eradication
To erradicate insects, one must understand the proper abatement program with pheromones. This article will discuss how to best accomplish that.
Unfortunately, few experiments have been conducted to determine whether high air velocities prevent approach responses because of physical impediments as outlined above, or whether in some cases the responding insect is inhibited from even initiating an orientation reaction when it senses the improper velocity. A behavioral effect of air velocity on the responding sex has been documented in two cases: 1) honey bee drones, Apis mellifera L., mate with queens while in ight. The altitude at which drones tend to y in response to visual lures releasing pheromone decreases as air velocity increases from 15 m at a velocity of l.4 m/sec down to 8 m at 7.3 m/sec (Butler and Fairey 1964). 2) Kaae and Shorey ( I973) placed traps releasing pink bol1worm,Peetznophora gossypiella (Saunders), female sex pheromone at various elevations above the ground in cotton elds. Most males approached traps located near foliage tops on relatively calm nights (air velocity 0--3 m/sec) and near foliage bottoms on windy nights (8-12 m/sec). llemulcs of this species must be affected by wind velocity in a similar manner. because most mating pairs were found high on cotton plants on calm nights and at lower levels on windy nights. Presumably females settled in these locations before releasing pheromone. This is related to the pheromone aspect of insect managament.
Sewer et al (1972) found that sex pheromone evaporated more rapidly from pheromones.
The pheromone males exposed to the female sex pheromone (Bartell and Shorey 1969). On the other hand, the cabbage looper moth, Trichoplusia ni (Hiibner), typically communicates and mates during the hours of darkness; light intensities greater than that equivalent to full moonlight (0.3 lux) inhibited male responses to female sex pheromone (Shorey and Gaston 1964). A 10,000-fold increase in pheromone concentration was required at a light intensity of 30 lux to cause males to exhibit the same level of responsiveness seen at 0.3 lux. The relative pheromone responsiveness of cabbage looper males has not been evaluated at intensities lower than O.3lux. However, Saario et al. (1970) found that the males were attracted to pheromone- emitting traps in the field as readily on nights having a full moon as they were on nights having no moonlight (< 0.01 lux).
No studies could be found indicating whether the production of sex pheromone is inuenced by the prevailing light intensity. Also, little research has been conducted on the control of sex pheromone release by light intensity. Probably pheromone release will be found to be as strongly controlled by this environmental factor as is pheromone responsiveness. For instance, Sower et al. (1970) observed that cabbage looper females everted their glands and released pheromone more readily with increasing darkness. Release behavior became maximal at the same 0.3-lux intensity found most suitable for male responsiveness.
Batiste (1970) and Batiste et al. (1973) studied the attraction of male codling moths, Carpocapsa pomonella (L.), to female-baited traps in the field. Captures of males in the traps provided evidence that light intensity did not inhibit either male responsiveness nor female pheromone release. Mating activity in this species typically begins well before sunset. Correspondingly, males approached the traps when the light intensity was as high as 50,000 lux, as long as the other controlling factors such as temperature and time-of-day were not limiting.
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ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Alexander P is a blogger in Los Angeles who studies pheromones.