Cost segregation correctly depreciating real estate 10
More tax deductions means tax reductionImportant Commentary for Owners of Real EstateBy Patrick O’Connor, MAIDepreciate Property Improvements Correctly...and Pay Less Federal Income TaxMost commercial...
Important Commentary for Owners of Real Estate
By Patrick O’Connor, MAI
Depreciate Property Improvements Correctly...
and Pay Less Federal Income Tax
Most commercial real estate owners are paying excess federal income taxes because they are not depreciating their property as quickly as they should. A cost segregation study allows property owners to both defer and reduce federal income taxes. Cost segregation increases depreciation (a non-cash deduction) for commercial real estate owners. When properly performed by an appraiser with expertise in cost segregation, this is a conservative tax planning tool which reduces federal income taxes by properly allocating the cost basis between land, 5-year, 7-year, 15-year, 27.5-year and 39-year property.
Depreciation is an important non-cash tax deduction. By increasing tax deductions, commercial property owners affect federal income tax reduction. The increase in tax write-offs generates such a large tax cut that some wonder if it is a tax shelter or tax evasion scheme. It is not. Cost segregation is an IRS-guided process used to increase tax deductions during the tax preparation process. The IRS has provided a detailed explanation of the items that qualify for short-life depreciation and acceptable methodologies for performing a cost segregation study. Cost segregation studies performed by appraisers in compliance with the IRS's Audit Techniques Guide are unlikely to be challenged in an audit. Commercial real estate owners seeking tax advice and tax relief can benefit from reviewing the tax relief available from cost segregation.
Cost Segregation Study Benefits include Tax Deductions and Tax Reduction
Benefits of a cost segregation study are substantial, immediate and enduring. Year 1 federal income tax savings are typically at least two times the cost of a cost segregation study. In many cases they are five to fifty times the cost of the study. The present value of federal income tax savings for a property held for ten years are typically at least ten times the cost of the study. In many cases, the present value of tax savings as much as 30 to 50 times the cost of the report. The cost segregation study is only required once. Its cost is not recurring, but the benefits are recurring during the term of property ownership. A cost segregation study can also materially reduce local property taxes by separating real and personal property for newly constructed properties.
Preparing a cost segregation study requires only a limited time commitment from the owner, perhaps 10 to 15 minutes. This limited commitment of time results in substantial federal income tax savings, which are both conservative in approach and well documented. Some owners believe their accountant is properly segregating components into the proper classifications. Depreciation schedules are routinely generated by allocating the minimal amount to land and the balance to long-life improvements. Cost segregation supplements this approach by identifying and valuing short-life components. Many accountants and tax lawyers cannot thoroughly research this highly specialized field to understand the myriad number of items which can be segregated and are inadvertently overstating their client’s income tax liability. Furthermore, not obtaining a cost segregation study increases exposure in case of an audit since there is no clear audit trail. A cost segregation study prepared by an appraiser with expertise in land valuation, construction costs and market value clearly documents each of these items. Further, a cost segregation expert can almost certainly sharply increase allowable depreciation.
Following is a summary of the results of a cost segregation study based upon a recent assignment: Office Building
Cost Segregation Example
Depreciable basis $6,650,000
Annual depreciation (using 39-year straight line) $137,756
Accurate Cost Allocation and Depreciation after Cost Segregation Study
$4,493,203 Annual Depreciation
$115,210 Year 1 depreciation with cost segregation $224,506
Less annual depreciation without cost segregation
Additional year 1 depreciation 137,756
Year 1 tax savings based upon 35% marginal tax rate $30,362
Who Benefits from a Cost Segregation Study
If you own real estate and pay federal income taxes or expect to during the ownership period for the property, you will benefit from the results of a cost segregation study. This is true whether the owner of the real estate is a corporation, limited partnership or limited liability corporation. For syndicators, a cost segregation study is appropriate if limited partners will receive material net taxable income during the holding period even if the general partner does not currently pay federal income taxes. The cost segregation study will increase depreciation shield, thereby decreasing and deferring federal income taxes for the investors.
Decreasing and Deferring Federal Taxes
Since a cost segregation study decreases and defers federal income taxes, let’s review the long-term impact of this deferral. When the property is sold, capital gains tax will be due if the owner does not enter into a 1031 exchange. However, capital gains tax rates are typically 15% for high net worth individuals, while the ordinary income tax rate is 35%. In addition, the deferral during the ownership period has material benefits because of the time value of money. All investors would much rather pay a 15% tax rate when an asset is sold as opposed to paying a 35% tax rate today.
When Should You Obtain A Cost Segregation Study
The best time to obtain a cost segregation study is when you build or purchase a property. Documentation is most readily available for performing a study and a contemporaneous property inspection can be performed to best document results. However, there are options to perform a cost segregation study for property which has been developed or purchased previously.
Elements of Preparing a Cost Segregation Study
The appraiser starts by gathering documents from the property owner and performing a site visit. As necessary, depending on the special-use property found during the site visit, the appraiser would confer with tax counsel and review relevant tax court decisions. For newly constructed properties, most of the information on actual costs can be obtained from construction draws or invoices from contractors. For existing properties, the appraiser performs a quantity take-off for 5-year, 7-year, and 15-year property and estimates replacement cost using recognized sources. The appraiser then values land, 5-year, 7- year, 15-year, 27.5-year and 39-year property based upon inspection, analysis and IRS regulations and court rulings.
Does this only apply to large owners?
Both large and small owners of income property or owner-occupied commercial property can benefit from a cost segregation study. Commercial properties with a cost basis of at least $200,000 will likely see a material benefit in excess of the cost from a cost segregation study. In fact, owners of single-family rental homes can probably achieve worthwhile benefits by obtaining a cost segregation study. It should be financially feasible to utilize a cost segregation study for any investment property with an improvement cost basis of $500,000 or more. In many cases, it will make financial sense to obtain a cost segregation report for a property or group of properties with a lower cost basis (per property). For example, it would make financial sense to obtain a cost segregation study for 50 rent houses in southeast Atlanta.
Qualifications to Consider when ordering a Cost Segregation Report
The ability to value land and real property are critical elements when engaging a tax reduction expert to perform a cost segregation study. In addition, it is essential they have a detailed understanding of rules for classifying 5-year, 7-year, 15-year, 27.5-year and 39-year property. The ability to justifiably increase short-life depreciation materially increases the benefits of a cost segregation study. While most accounting professionals have a rudimentary understanding of the 5-year, 7-year and 15-year property classifications, few have a detailed understanding of this highly specialized niche. Be certain the report provider has scrutinized both the federal income tax code and the meaningful tax court cases to allow you to maximize your depreciation and minimize your federal income tax liability.
O’Connor & Associates is a national provider of investment property consulting services including business valuation, tax reduction, cost segregation, real estate consulting, property tax, market research, due diligence, Tax reduction, Casualty loss, Waller County Appraisal District, Tips and Tricks for Appealing Your Property Taxes in Montgomery, Montgomery county appraisal, and Federal tax reduction. Our appraisers are competent to appraise virtually all types of property including land, neighborhood shopping centers, warehouses, bowling alleys, motels, mobile home parks, self-storage units, retirement homes, multifamily housing, movie theatres, veterinary clinics, single-tenant retail centers, funeral homes, bars, amusement parks, hospitals, schools, night clubs, apartments and medical facilities.
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ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Patrick C. O'Connor has been president of O'Connor & Associates since 1983 and is a recipient of the prestigious MAI designation from the Appraisal Institute. He is also a registered senior property tax consultant in the state of Texas and has written numerous articles in state and national publications on reducing property taxes. He continues to set the standard in direction and quality of our appraisal products, adding services ranging from business valuations and business appraisals to cost segregation analysis for income tax reduction.
Patrick C. O'Connor