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Human Infant Development and Learning

From  the  moment  of   conception,  the  new  life  is  influenced  by  various  environment  stimuli.  These  stimuli...

From  the  moment  of   conception,  the  new  life  is  influenced  by  various  environment  stimuli. 

These  stimuli  help  to  mold  the  potentialities  for  growth  and  development  which  he  inherits  from  his  parents.  Thus  the  individual  at  birth  is  pattered  by  heredity  and  environment  influences.  The  interdependence  of   these  influences  may  be  noted  in  all  aspects  of  the  human    development.  For  example,  the  development  of  oral  speech  must  await  the  maturation  of  certain  physiological  structures  involved  in  the  production  of  different  sounds.

Environment  can  be  sometimes  regarded  as  a  passive    place  in  which  an  individual’s  behavior  occurs. It  can  be  thought  of  as  consisting  of  a  myriad  of  specific stimuli  that  stimulate  the  individual  to  action. Some  of  these  are  visible   while  others,  such  as  the  feelings,  aspirations,  thoughts  and  attitudes  are  in   the  main  invisible.

The  most  important  environmental   factor  in  the  human  development  of  the  individual  is  the  family. The  family  furnishes  the  child  with  his  earliest  steps  in  socialization. This  is  reflected  in  the  habits  of  the  family,  in  the  manner  of in  which  discipline is  administrated,  how  they  observe  religious  occasions,  and  in  the  attention  given  to  each  other  in  times  of  sickness  and  like. The  family ideals,  desires,  goals,  and  values  are  transmitted  to  the  child. These  may  conflict  with  those  found  elsewhere.  This  conflict  of  ideas  itself  is  a  factor  of  development  and  socialization  of  the  individual.

The  type  of  parental  behavior  correlate  with  certain  types  of  individual’s  behavior. This  can   help the  individual  to  become   well-socialized and well-developed person, and  on  the  contrary  can  cause  the  development  of  some sorts of anti-social behavior. For  instance,  the  correlation  encourages  the  personal  development  and  expression  of  ideas.  It  is  logical  and  consistent in  its  treatment,  as  it  makes  the  child  for  self-reliance,  resourcefulness, and  habits  of  responsibility. And  as  a  converse  to  this,  the  overprotected  child  lacks  self-reliance,  is  unable  to  play  in  groups,  displays  nervous  habits,  is  inclined  towards  sadism,  and  is  insecure.

There  is  also  a  great  influence  on  human  development of  different  economic  groups. It  was  proved  that  the  frustrations  of  children  from  homes  of  poverty  have  greater  social  significance,  since  they  lead  to  aggressive  acts  which  in  turn lead  to  the  courts.  Stealing  and  immorality  are   outlets  often  resorted  to  by  children  from  the  lower  economic  groups  in  their  efforts  to  adjust  to  frustrations.  While  more  socially  acceptable  outlets  are   found  by  those  in  better  circumstances.

School  is  also  an  important  environment  factor  in  child’s  development.  If  school contributes  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  need  of  growing  children,  it  is  to  have  a  beneficial  effect  upon  their  development.  But  if  its  program  fails  to  consider  the  aspirations and  need  of  children,  if  it  is  not  in  harmony  with  their  abilities and  characteristics,  it will  be  ineffectual  and  even  harmful foe  future  human  development.  

There  are  certain  qualities  that  define a well-socialized and  well-developed  person. Such  a  person  should  be  able  to  carry  on  co-operative  activities  on  a  fair  and  sound  basis,  to  exercise  mature  judgement  on  different  problems  and  issues,  to  assume  personal  responsibility  for  his  actions. He  should  have  a  wide  range  of  friends,  chosen  on  a  sound  basis,   should  display  independence  in  judgement  and  action,  but  with  regard  for  the  rights  and  opinions  of  others,  he should  be  able  to  take  an  objective  attitude  towards  the  self.  Such  qualities  as  honesty,  the  feeling  of  personal  worth,  creative  approach, reasonability,  decency,  humanity  and  others  are  important  characteristics  of  well-adjusted,  well-developed  personality. 

This  favorable  course  of  development  is  possible  when  the    individual  lives  in  attention,  love, affection and  security  that  are  provided   by  his  family  as  well  as  by   school  staff.

While   the  feeling  of  insecurity,  of  inattention,  of  repudiation,  of  disregarding  can  cause  the  development  of  aggression and other sorts of anti-social behavior.

The  process  of   learning  is  a  fundamental  part   of  human  development.  Because  children   learn   a lot  about  social  relations,  they  learn that  certain  things  are  not  acceptable,  they  learn  what  they  can  do  and  what  cannot  do  according  to  adult  standards.  They  become  an  important  part  of  social  and  moral  life.  Children  become  well-developed  persons  as  they  are  already  able  to  avoid  conflicts,  to  restrain  aggression,  that  is  fundamental  characteristics  of  all  living  organisms,  they  are  able  to  submit  to  social  demands even  though  they  may  be  contrary  to  their  own desires  and  wants.

I have made some observations of adult/child interaction in our friends’ families. I had the opportunity of observing two patterns of the family, two manners in which the authority is administrated there. I have studied two parental behaviors, two types of treatment. I could clearly observe how these factors influenced children’s socialization and types of their behavior.

In the first family there is a high level of correlation, collaboration and interaction in adult/child relations. Parents are logical and consistent  in their treatment of the child. I could observe how this type of relations affected child development. The correlation encourages child’s development and expression of ideas. Logical treatment of the child makes for his self-reliance, resourcefulness, responsibility.

As a converse to this, I have another example of adult/child interaction. There is a  high level of parents’ overprotection. As result, such treatment has the following effects. The child lacks self-reliance. He is unable to play in groups, displays nervous habits, he is insecure.

While studying at school, I had the opportunity of observing in the classroom one more results of adult/child interaction in family. My classmate was from the family where the father was absent. Even then I came to the conclusion that the presence or absence of parents had an important bearing on the child’s development. Boy’s father died when he was very small. As a result the mother was chief influence. Those circumstances affected child a lot. He lacked initiative, he was irresponsible and weak person. Even now he is immature person with a lot of conflicts in the character.  He is apatheticFree Web Content, hopeless and unconfident. 

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