Human Infant Development and Learning
From the moment of conception, the new life is influenced by various environment stimuli. These stimuli...
From the moment of conception, the new life is influenced by various environment stimuli.
These stimuli help to mold the potentialities for growth and development which he inherits from his parents. Thus the individual at birth is pattered by heredity and environment influences. The interdependence of these influences may be noted in all aspects of the human development. For example, the development of oral speech must await the maturation of certain physiological structures involved in the production of different sounds.
Environment can be sometimes regarded as a passive place in which an individual’s behavior occurs. It can be thought of as consisting of a myriad of specific stimuli that stimulate the individual to action. Some of these are visible while others, such as the feelings, aspirations, thoughts and attitudes are in the main invisible.
The most important environmental factor in the human development of the individual is the family. The family furnishes the child with his earliest steps in socialization. This is reflected in the habits of the family, in the manner of in which discipline is administrated, how they observe religious occasions, and in the attention given to each other in times of sickness and like. The family ideals, desires, goals, and values are transmitted to the child. These may conflict with those found elsewhere. This conflict of ideas itself is a factor of development and socialization of the individual.
The type of parental behavior correlate with certain types of individual’s behavior. This can help the individual to become well-socialized and well-developed person, and on the contrary can cause the development of some sorts of anti-social behavior. For instance, the correlation encourages the personal development and expression of ideas. It is logical and consistent in its treatment, as it makes the child for self-reliance, resourcefulness, and habits of responsibility. And as a converse to this, the overprotected child lacks self-reliance, is unable to play in groups, displays nervous habits, is inclined towards sadism, and is insecure.
There is also a great influence on human development of different economic groups. It was proved that the frustrations of children from homes of poverty have greater social significance, since they lead to aggressive acts which in turn lead to the courts. Stealing and immorality are outlets often resorted to by children from the lower economic groups in their efforts to adjust to frustrations. While more socially acceptable outlets are found by those in better circumstances.
School is also an important environment factor in child’s development. If school contributes to the satisfaction of the need of growing children, it is to have a beneficial effect upon their development. But if its program fails to consider the aspirations and need of children, if it is not in harmony with their abilities and characteristics, it will be ineffectual and even harmful foe future human development.
There are certain qualities that define a well-socialized and well-developed person. Such a person should be able to carry on co-operative activities on a fair and sound basis, to exercise mature judgement on different problems and issues, to assume personal responsibility for his actions. He should have a wide range of friends, chosen on a sound basis, should display independence in judgement and action, but with regard for the rights and opinions of others, he should be able to take an objective attitude towards the self. Such qualities as honesty, the feeling of personal worth, creative approach, reasonability, decency, humanity and others are important characteristics of well-adjusted, well-developed personality.
This favorable course of development is possible when the individual lives in attention, love, affection and security that are provided by his family as well as by school staff.
While the feeling of insecurity, of inattention, of repudiation, of disregarding can cause the development of aggression and other sorts of anti-social behavior.
The process of learning is a fundamental part of human development. Because children learn a lot about social relations, they learn that certain things are not acceptable, they learn what they can do and what cannot do according to adult standards. They become an important part of social and moral life. Children become well-developed persons as they are already able to avoid conflicts, to restrain aggression, that is fundamental characteristics of all living organisms, they are able to submit to social demands even though they may be contrary to their own desires and wants.
I have made some observations of adult/child interaction in our friends’ families. I had the opportunity of observing two patterns of the family, two manners in which the authority is administrated there. I have studied two parental behaviors, two types of treatment. I could clearly observe how these factors influenced children’s socialization and types of their behavior.
In the first family there is a high level of correlation, collaboration and interaction in adult/child relations. Parents are logical and consistent in their treatment of the child. I could observe how this type of relations affected child development. The correlation encourages child’s development and expression of ideas. Logical treatment of the child makes for his self-reliance, resourcefulness, responsibility.
As a converse to this, I have another example of adult/child interaction. There is a high level of parents’ overprotection. As result, such treatment has the following effects. The child lacks self-reliance. He is unable to play in groups, displays nervous habits, he is insecure.
While studying at school, I had the opportunity of observing in the classroom one more results of adult/child interaction in family. My classmate was from the family where the father was absent. Even then I came to the conclusion that the presence or absence of parents had an important bearing on the child’s development. Boy’s father died when he was very small. As a result the mother was chief influence. Those circumstances affected child a lot. He lacked initiative, he was irresponsible and weak person. Even now he is immature person with a lot of conflicts in the character. He is apathetic, hopeless and unconfident.
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