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Bluetooth technology in computers and WAP ( Wireless Applicatio Protocol ) in electronics and human genome in medical science are just a few of the numerous advances that have taken place recently. These advances indicate that science plays a vital role in modern society. Hence it becomes essential for the science educationist to enhance meaningful learning, as today's students are future architects of modern society. Hence the investigator has adopted Concept Mapping as one of the strategies to introduce the concepts Semiconductor Heterostructures, IC for which Nobel Prize has been awarded during the year 2000.
A Concept Map is a schematic device for representing a set of concept meanings embedded in a framework of propositions. In a Concept Map, the more general, more inclusive concepts should be at the apex of the Concept Map, with progressively more specific, less inclusive concepts arranged below them. Since the concepts are arranged hierarchically, meaningful learning precedes more easily as new concepts or concept meanings are subsumed under broader more inclusive concepts.
In the present study the investigator introduced the 2 concepts namely Semiconductor Heterostructures, IC through two different methods namely Concept Mapping Method and Lecture Method. The XI standard students of N.K.T.National Girls' Higher Secondary School, India (where the investigator is working) studying under State Board syllabus formed the sample. The class was divided into two groups of 20 students each and was treated as Control Group (CG) and Experimental Group (EG). Two B.Ed. trainees (K.R.Kavitha and N.V.Jaya Bharathi) of N.K.T.National College of Education carried the experimental part of the research study developed by the investigator. Ms N.V.Jayabharathi taught the two concepts to Control Group through Lecture Method while Ms.K.R.Kavitha taught the same concepts to Experimental Group at the same time through Concept Mapping Method.
Objectives of the Study
1.To find the effectiveness of Concept Mapping strategy over Lecture Method on achievement in Physics of XI standard students.
2.To study the effect of Scientific Attitude on achievement in Physics of students learning through Lecture Method.
3. To study the effect of Scientific Attitude on achievement in Physics of students learning through Concept Mapping Method.
A pre-test was administered for both the groups to assess the students' initial knowledge. Then the two concepts were introduced by two different methods to respective groups. Finally a post-test was administered to both the groups. The Experimental Design, which is pre-test- treatment - post-test is shown in Table 1
where SS means Sample Strength, TM means Teaching Method, AT means Achievement Test in Physics, C.M.M means Concept Mapping Method, L.M. means Lectire Method
The two B.Ed. trainees carried the research programme simultaneously at the same time and were given one hour to complete the programme. By simultaneous implementation of the programme any error due to fatigue etc is neglected. A Science Attitude Scale developed by Dr. Mrs. Avinash Grewal was also administered at the end of the session.
The tools used in the study are
1.Achievement Test developed by the investigator 2.Science Attitude Scale 3.Concept Maps 4.Lesson Plan
The Achievement Test consisting of 25 multiple-choice questions was developed by the investigator and each question carries one mark. The Achievement Test served as both pre-test and post-test. The investigator utilized the Scientific Attitude Scale (SAS) developed by Dr. Mrs. Avinash Grewal to determine the attitudes of XI standard students participating in the research programme. The Science Attitude Scale (SAS) consisted of 20 items where 10 positive items (S.No 2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20) and 10 negative items (S.No. 1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17,19) are present.
Each of the 10 positive items on the scale is assigned a weight ranging from 4 (strongly agree ) to 0 (strongly disagree). In the case of 10 negative items the scale scoring is reversed ranging from 0 (strongly agree) to 4(strongly disagree). The attitude score of a subject is the sum total of scores in all twenty items in the scale. Thus a maximum of eighty scores can be obtained by the subject.
Seven Concept Maps pertaining to the 2 concepts under consideration were developed by the investigator.
A Lesson Plan according to which the concepts were introduced by Lecture Method was also developed by the investigator.
The analysis was performed by teaching the two concepts to two groups namely Control Group (CG) and Experimental Group (EG) through Lecture Method and Concept Mapping Method. Before commencing the lesson the pre-test was given and after the lesson was taught the post-test was again administered.
The Gain Score of Lecture Method is given by GL = LPO - LPR where GL is gain score of Lecture Method LPO is post-test score of Lecture Method LPR is pre-test score of Lecture Method
The Gain Score of Concept Mapping Method is given by GC = CPO - CPR where GC is gain score of Concept Mapping Method CPO is post-test score of Concept Mapping Method CPR is pre-test score of Concept Mapping Method
Analysis of Critical Ratios
Critical Ratios were calculated to test the significance of difference between the pre-test and post-test scores in Lecture Method and Concept Mapping Method.
Critical Ratio between the pre-test and post-test scores in Lecture Method
The Critical Ratio calculated in respect of pre-test and post-test scores of Control Group taught by Lecture Method is given in Table 2.
Test MeanS.D.?t? value L.S.
Pretest 8.151.27610.49 P<0.01
Where L.S stand for Level of Significance.
The results of Table 2 indicate that there is significant difference between the post-test and pre-test scores of students of Control Group taught by Lecture Method. Since the post-test score is greater than the pre-test score we can conclude that the performance of students is significantly higher than their performance in pre-test.
Critical Ratio between the pre-test and post-test scores in Concept Mapping Method
The Critical Ratio calculated in respect of pre-test scores of Experimental Group taught by Concept Mapping Method is given in Table 3.
TestMeanS.D.?t? value L.S
Pretest9.40.8 19.60 P<0.01
The results of Table 3 indicate that there is significant difference between the post-test and pre-test scores of students of Experimental Group taught by Concept Mapping Method. Since the post-test score is greater than the pre-test score, we can conclude that the performance of students in post-test is significantly higher than their performance in pre-test.
Analysis of Gain Scores
The Critical Ratio calculated in respect of Gain Scores of two groups subjected to two different methods of teaching is presented in Table 4
GroupsMeanS.D.?t? value L.S
where L.M. stand for Lecture Method C.M.M. stand for Concept Mapping Method
The results indicate that there is significant difference between the gain scores of two groups namely Lecture Method and Concept Mapping Method. Since the gain score of Concept Mapping Method is significantly greater than the gain score of Lecture Method it may be concluded that teaching through Concept Mapping strategy has helped students in the Experimental Group to achieve high scores in the test.
Coefficient of Correlation 'r' between the gain scores of Lecture Method and Science Attitude Scale
The product moment coefficient of correlation 'r' calculated in respect of gain scores of Lecture Method and Science Attitude Scale (SAS) scores is given in Table 5.
Scores MeanS.D. r
where G.S.L.M. stand for Gain Score of Lecture Method
The high value of positive correlation indicate that Science Attitude and performance of students are positively correlated. That is, students with better attitude in science score better marks in science.
Coefficient of correlation r between the gain scores of Concept Mapping Method and Science Attitude Scale
The product moment coefficient of correlation r calculated in respect of gain scores of Concept Mapping Method and Science Attitude Scale is given in Table 6
Scores Mean S.D. r
C.M.M. 10.3 1.7920.8049
SASScore 66.4 3.904
C.M.M. stand for Concept Mapping Method
The high value of r indicate that Science Attitude and performance of students are positively correlated. That is students with better attitude in science score better marks in science.
The findings of the study
1.The gain scores of students taught through Concept Mapping Method is significantly higher than the gain score of students taught through Lecture Method.
2.The students with better attitudes in Science have scored better marks in their Achievement Test in Control Group taught by Lecture Method
3.The students with better attitudes in Science have scored better marks in their Achievement Test in Experimental Group taught by Concept Mapping Method
4.It was observed that the time factor involved in teaching / learning through Concept Mapping Method was less than the time taken for Lecture Method. Hence considerable time could be saved apart from enhancing teaching / learning through Concept Mapping Method.
Garrett. Henry E & R.S. Woodworth, (1979). Statistics in Psychology and Education. Hyderabad : International Book Bureau
Novak, Joseph D & D.Bob Gowin (1984) Learning How to Learn. England : Cambridge University Press.
Semiconductor Heterostructures, IC Win Nobel. Press release of the Hindu, Oct 19, 2000
The author is a science educationalist as she has done M.Sc. in Physics and Ph.D. in Science Education. She is a gold medalist as she has obtained I Rank during M.Phil (Education) of University of Madras and is a First Prize Winner of the BOLT (Broad Outlook Learner Teacher) Award organized by Air India, The Hindu & Dina Malar and is teaching Physics for Higher Secondary classes in Chennai, India.