Brief History of Ameer Khosrow (Parrot of India)
A brief research has been made on the life of Persian poet Ameer Khosrow. Moreover, life, activities, love with country, love with Disciple Nizam Uddin and publications of Persian scholar have also been explained briefly. The article is totally organic.
Ain Uddin alias Abul Hassan was born in 1253 at Kushan city in Mawarun Nehar. He is famous in the world with the name of Ameer Khosrow. His father Saif Uddin Mahmood was a tribal leader of Hazara and Hussain tribes. Saif Uddin was an officer in the army of Sultan Shamas Uddin Shamas. When Changaiz Khan invaded on the kingdom of Shamas Uddin Shamas, Saif Uddin shifted his family to Ghorband city of Kabul, Afghanistan. In the meanwhile, Shamas awarded Saif Uddin with agriculture land in Patiali (India). Therefore, Saif uddin shifted himself to Patiali (India) to look after the said agriculture land. He got married there with the daughter of Emad ul Mulk, who was an army officer. Almighty Allah blessed Saif Uddin with three son. Ameer Khosrow was his younger son.
Early Life and Death
Ameer Khosrow was born in 1253 at Patiali, India. He got his early education from Patiali, India. Khosrow was very intelligent from his childhood. He also got expertise in Arabic, Persian languages and calligraphy. Khosrow was blessed with euphony from child hood. His tone of voice was sweet.
Khosrow’s father died when he was eight years old. After death of his father, his grandfather Emad ul Mulk looked after him. His grandfather also passed away when he was 20 years old. Now, Khosrow was matured. He started job as poet in the office Ameer Kashlow Khan alias Chhajow. Kashlow Khan alias Chhajow was an administrator of Sultan Ghayas uddin Bulbun. Unfortunately, some differences raised with Chhajow and Ameer Khosrow left his office. Khosrow further joined the office of Baghra Khan Son of Sultan Bulbun.
Professional Life of Ameer Khosrow
At that time, Tifral (who was governor of Bangladesh and Lakhnow) disobeyed Sultan Bulbun and committed mutiny. Bulbun send Baghra Khan to counter the munity of Tifral. Baghra Khan fought against Tifral and defeat him. Ameer Khosrow also accompanied Baghra Khan in this adventure. However, Khosrow returned to Delhi soon. Sultan Bulbun celebrate the victory in Delhi in which Sultan Mehmood, the elder son of Sultan Bulbun also grace the occasion. Sultan Mehmood also met with Khosrow in the ceremony and offered him job in his office at Multan. Khosrow agreed with offer of Sultan Mehmood. Sultan Mehmood took Khosrow and his close friend Sajzi along to Multan. Ameer Khosrow served in the office of Sultan Mehmood for five years at Multan.
Award of Appellative name “Ameer”
In 1284, Sultan Mehmood killed in a war with Sultan Muhammad Maghlon. Khosrow was also apprehended in the war but released later. He shifted to Delhi after release. In 1287, Khosrow started job in the office of Subedar Adwah Khan Jehan. Khosrow served for two year there. Soon, he returned to Delhi for look after of his mother. Ameer Khosrow joined the office of Sultan Keeqad as Malikul Shoara (head of Poets) at Delhi. Sultan Keeqad died in 1290 and his younger son Shamas Uddin become the king in his place. Ameer Jalil uddin Feroz Khelji was appointed as teacher of Shamas Uddin. Soon, Ameer Jalil uddin Feroz Khelji removed king Shamas uddin and become king in his place. He awarded Khosrow with appellative name "Ameer" in 1290.
Fall of Jalil Uddin Feroz Khelji
Elah Udding Khelji was the nephew and son-in-law of Ameer Jalil uddin Feroz Khelji. He killed Jalil uddin Feroz Khelji and become the king in his place. Elah Uddin was very economical and tightfisted in rewards. Therefore, Khosrow was not happy in his era. However, Khelji awarded Ameer Khosrow a complete village in return of an ode / epode. It was the peak time of Ameer Khosrow's poetry. Khosrow attached with the office of Khelji for twenty-one years. Qutob Uddin Khelji was the successor of Jalil uddin Feroz Khelji. Qutob Uddin Khelji was also kind to Ameer Khosrow. When Ameer Khosrow wrote "NOWSEHPER", Qutob Uddin awarded a lot of reward to him.
Era of Ghayas Uddin Tughlaq and death of Khosrow
Ghayas Uddin Tughlaq become the king after fall of Khelji family's government. He was a religious king, therefore, Ameer Khosrow warmly welcomed him. Ghayas Uddin Tughlaq was apparently kind to Khosrow but in fact he dislike Nizam Uddin Awleya, who was the beloved hierarch of Khosrow. Khosrow left the office of king Tughlaq. Ameer Khosrow died on 28 September 1325 and buried near the tomb of Nizam Uddin Awleya.
Love of Khosrow with Disciple Nizan Uddin
Ameer Khosrow started following the ideology of Nizam Uddin Awleya in 1272. Nizam Uddin Awleya also loved Ameer Khosrow very much. Ameer Khosrow showed his love with his beloved disciple Nizan Uddin in his couplets.
Gentle and Temperate Personality
Ameer Khosrow was gentle and religious. He was well-behaved, cheerful, kind and facetious in dealing with colleagues and subordinates. Zia Udding Barfi writes that Khosrow was very religious, simple, straight-forward and well-behaved. Khosrow used to spend his maximum time in reciting of Holy Quran and prayers. He also loves with his family. Khosrow left the job, office of the king and everything in love of his mother. He looked after his mother, family and parents very well. Khosrow wrote dolorous and heartrending threnodies on the death of his mother and brother in 1298. He could not sustain after death of Nizam Uddin Awleya and his mother.
Popularity and Fame
Ameer Khosrow is one of those lucky poets who earned popularity and fame during his life time. He completed his maximum books during his life time. He wrote the preface of his five Diwan (Books) himself. Khosrow also wrote the bibliographies and biographies of his books himself. He also tabulated the editing and classification of his books himself. Maulana Rumi writes that Khosrow has written ninety-nine books. Following are some of his famous poetry books:-
Following are some of his famous prose books:-
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ABOUT THE AUTHOR
My name is Muhammad Ishaq. I have done my M.A (Master of Arts in Persian) from University of Peshawar. I am writing articles on Persian poets and general essays for schools, college and university students.