Computer Networking: Elements and Components
Any network must contain some basic elements in order to work. These elements may be hardware elements or the software rules involved in the transmission. Here is an illustration of each of them.
1.Message: the message is a generic term that scribes the data to be transmitted. It can be email, webpage, user call, instant message, or any other forms. The message is generated by the end user that needs to make the transmission. This message will be fed to the network later.
Generally, the message is generated using software installed on computer. For example, if the message is email, it will be generated by email programs such as outlook. Also if the message is a web page request, it will be generated by a browser such as internet explorer. It can also be generated by a chatting program is it represents a call by the user.
2.Medium: the medium is the transmission path over which the data will be transmitted. Is is used to connect the end user with the network device or to connect the network devices with each other.
Many types exist for the medium. Mainly it can be wired or wireless medium. The wired medium can be copper or optical fibers. The copper is subdivided into coaxial cables and twisted pairs. The copper wires carry data as electrical pulses while the optical fiber carry data as light pulses. The wireless medium carries data as electromagnetic waves. Each of the above mediums has its own specifications and used according to the application.
3.Devices: there are two basic types of devices in the network: end user devices and network devices. The end user device is considered to be the source of the message. It can be a client computer or an IP phone. The function of the end user device is to send the data to the network.
On the other hand, the network devices are used along with the medium to forward the data generated by the end user device. They are located in between the end user devices and connected between them through the cables.
The main function of the computer network devices is to forward the data to the correct destination based on the address that is send along with the data. The two main devices that accomplish this are the routers and the switches. The router forwards the data according to the IP address while the switch forwards the data according to the MAC address inside the data frame.
4. Rules: the rules are the protocols that used between the end user devices that organize the communication. The two popular protocols are the IP protocol and the TCP protocol. When the end user needs to send the data, it runs a conversation first with the other device according to a set of rules that prepares for the transmission. Each network uses its own protocols set up by the administrator of the network to manage the operations inside the network. Note that this element is a software element and is set up by software programs
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ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Youssef Edward is an Electrical Engineer and he is the owner of www.tips-made-easy.info site He studied too much in many branches of computer science. Learn much more about networking in the links below