All About ADHD

Jun 20 09:14 2012 Lawanna Brock Print This Article

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder that affects an estimated 10% of school-age children and is three times more likely to be diagnosed in boys. Kids with ADHD act without thinking are hyperactive and have trouble focusing.

 They understand what is expected of them but have trouble following through with it because they can’t sit still and pay attention. Young children act this way at most times,Guest Posting especially when they are anxious or excited. The difference with regular behavior and ADHD is that the symptoms are present over a longer period of time and occur at different times in different settings. This impairs a child’s ability to function socially, academically, and in the home setting, too.

ADHD has three subtypes:

Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive – Most symptoms are from the hyperactivity-impulsivity category.

Predominantly inattentive – Most symptoms are in the inattention category.

Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive – Most children have the combined type where they have hyperactivity symptoms and impulsivity symptoms.

Causes of ADHD

Regardless of popular belief, ADHD is not caused by poor parenting, too much sugar, or vaccines. It has biological origins that are not well understood and no single cause has been identified. Researchers are exploring a number of possible environmental and genetic causes. Genes are inherited “blueprints” we get from our parents. Studies show that ADHD often runs in families and children with this condition have thinner brain tissue in certain areas associated with attention. Chemical changes in the brain have been noted in 10% of the brains of these children. Research supports that there is a link between smoking during pregnancy to ADHD. Other risks found include premature delivery, injuries to the brain at birth, and very low birth weight. Excessive early television watching has also been found to be a problem, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics. These experts recommend that children under 2 years of age should not have any “screen time”, including TV, DVDs, and videotapes.

Diagnosis

Children mature at different rates and have different personalities and temperaments. Most young children are easily distracted and struggle to concentrate. Parents may first notice that child seems “out of control” or “spaced out” when they are dealing with them in everyday life. There is no blood test that is used to diagnose this condition so doctors must use an evaluation technique to conclude a child has ADHD. Most children who are diagnosed with ADHD are referred to specialists for further workup and evaluation, according to Lawanna Brock. The behavior must also not be linked to home stress that involves a divorce, a change in school, or any other significant life event. Your child’s doctor will want to check hearing and vision so medical problems can be ruled out as well.

Symptoms

Inattentive Type ADHD

       inability to pay attention to details or a tendency to make careless errors in schoolwork or other activities

       difficulty with sustained attention in tasks or play activities

       apparent listening problems

       difficulty following instructions

       problems with organization

       avoidance or dislike of tasks that require mental effort

       tendency to lose things like toys, notebooks, or homework

       distractibility

       forgetfulness in daily activities

Hyperactive-Impulsive Type

       fidgeting or squirming

       difficulty remaining seated

       excessive running or climbing

       difficulty playing quietly

       always seeming to be "on the go"

       excessive talking

       blurting out answers before hearing the full question

       difficulty waiting for a turn or in line

       problems with interrupting or intruding

Treatment

Currently available treatments focus on reducing the symptoms of ADHD and improving functioning. Medication, psychotherapy, education, or a combination of treatments may be necessary. The most common type of medication used for this condition is a stimulant. It sounds unusual that ADHD would be treated with a medication that speeds you up, but in children with this condition, the medication gives them a calming effect. Not all children respond to stimulants and the one-size-fits-all approach does not apply for all children. What works for one will not work for everyone. Parents and doctors should work together to decide which medication is best for the child and whether the child needs medication only for school hours or for all occasions too. Under medical supervision, these medications are considered safe. They do not give the child a “high” and there is no evidence that the use of these medications leads to substance abuse or dependence.

Many children with ADHD require social skills training and behavioral therapy, reports Lawanna Brock. The aim of this is to help the child change his or her behavior. It might involve practical assistance, such as help organizing task and doing homework, or it may involve the child learning to give oneself praise or rewards for acting in a desired way. Teaching a child to read facial expressions and tone of voice in others is another important aspect of behavior and social training that may be needed.

Children with ADHD need guidance and understanding from their parents and teachers to reach their full potential and be a success. Parents should share pleasant relaxing activities with the child and notice and point out things he does well. They should always praise the child’s abilities and strengths.

Top Tips to Help Your Child Stay Organized and Follow Directions

Make a schedule. Keep a daily routine and post a schedule on the refrigerator or home bulletin board. Write changes on this as far in advance as possible.

Organize everyday items. Make a place for everything and keep items organized. This includes clothing, backpacks, and toys.

Use homework and notebook organizers. Stress to your child the importance of writing down his assignments and bringing home the necessary books.

Be clear and consistent. Children with ADHD will need consistent rules to follow and they should be simple for them to understand.

Praise and reward your child when rules are followed. Be sure to praise good behavior and avoid constant criticism.

Other Concerns and Conditions

ADHD often occurs along with other disorders. Around half of children with ADHD who are evaluated have behavioral disorders along with ADHD. The combination of ADHD with other conduct disorders makes for extra challenges for the affected individuals, educators, and healthcare providers. It is important for doctors to screen every child with ADHD for other disorders and problems. What’s more, ADHD can have serious effects on a child’s development. It makes childhood friendships and peer relationships very difficult. Your child’s immediate happiness may be affected as well as his long-term development. Some children with ADHD are rejected by peers and do not have close friends. In some incidents, children with peer problems may also be at higher risk for anxiety and other mood disorders in addition to substance abuse and teenager delinquency.

The cause of the social problems in children with ADHD is not fully understood but studies have found that children with inattentive ADHD may be perceived as shy or withdrawn by their peers. Research evaluated by Lawanna Brock firmly indicates that aggressive behavior in children with symptoms of impulsivity/hyperactivity may play a significant role in peer rejection.

Not every child with ADHD has difficulty getting along with others. For those who do, many things can be done to improve the relationship development. If the intervention is begun at an early stage, it has been found to be more successful. Although researchers have not found definite answers, there are things parents can do to help build and strengthen peer relationships for their child with ADHD.

Things parents can do:

  • Recognize the value of healthy peer relationships for children. These relationships can be just as important as grades to school success.
  • Maintain on-going communication with people who play significant roles in your child's life (such as teachers, school counselors, after-school activity leaders, and health care providers). Keep up to date on your child's social development in community and school settings.
  • Involve your child in activities with his or her peers. Communicate with other parents, sports coaches, and other involved adults about any progress or problems that may develop with your child.
  • Peer programs can be helpful, particularly for older children and teenagers. Schools and communities often have such programs available. You may want to discuss the possibility of your child's participation with program directors and your child's care providers.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is one of the most common behavior disorders that occur along with ADHD. This condition starts around age eight and is a disorder of behavior. This results in significant difficulties in school, at home, and with peers. Examples of ODD behavior include losing one’s temper often, arguing with adults and refusing to go along with rules, getting angry, being resentful and vindictive, deliberately annoying others, blaming others for mistakes.

Learning Disorder

At least half of youth between ages six and eleven years who are diagnosed with ADHD are found to have a learning disorder, too. It is particularly hard for these children to succeed in school. Proper diagnosis is crucial for these children and appropriate and timely interventions that address ADHD and LD should follow the diagnosis.

 Conduct Disorder

Conduct Disorder (CD) is a behavioral pattern that is characterized by aggression toward others and violation of rules, laws, and social norms. This type of behavior often leads to delinquency or incarceration. These children have increased injuries, strained peer relationships, and mood disorders like anxiety and depression. CD is less common than ODD but is a highly disruptive force in a person’s life.

Parenting ADHD Kids and Their Siblings

Around half the parents with ADHD children report more negative relationships between their child with ADHD and the other siblings. Stress related to parenting demands make it hard to find time to pay attention to siblings.

Family-Centered Plan - The first step is to create a family-centered behavioral plan that can be applied to your ADHD child as well as your other children. If children with ADHD can be rewarded with a star system, allow all your children to do so. Make this true for discipline, too. If your ADHD child gets time out for a certain behavior, make sure this goes for your other children as well. You can make adjustments based on age, gender, and other considerations in your parenting strategy.

Make Time for All – All of your children have special attention needs from their parents. Sometimes the stresses of an out-of-control schedule make the ADHD child appear in the spotlight. Try to schedule one-on-one time for your other children so they don’t feel left out.

Keep the lines of communication open – If your other children get upset, talk to them about what is bothering them. It could be that your child has some specific activities in mind that he wants you to know about but has been reluctant to bring them up.

Manage stress – The demands of parenting may threaten to get the better of you so step back and take a deep breath. Learn to relax and manage your stress.

Tips to Traveling with an ADHD Child

The best way to endure your next family vacation is to keep in mind the special needs of your child with ADHD.

  • Mentally prepare your child. Don’t surprise your ADHD child with a 10 day trip out of town. Mark it on the calendar so you can get your child ready for the adventure. Have him start thinking of what he wants to take with him.
  • Bring familiar objects. Take along everyday things that comfort your child, like a blanket or stuffed animal he likes. Familiar objects will help him feel more secure when he is away from his regular routine.
  • Stick to parts of a routine. If you can, adhere to parts of your home routine. Your child with ADHD craves order, so sticking with the habits that are the most crucial will help.
  • Adjust medications to your new routine. Adjust your child’s medication so that you give it later in the morning. This way, he will have more effectiveness later in the day.
  • Avoid exhaustion. The ADHD symptoms are worse when the child has not had enough sleep. Stick close to regular bedtime schedule as possible to keep daytime symptoms under control.
  • Keep the same behavioral rules. Just because you are on the road does not mean your child can misbehave without consequences.
  • Reinforce social etiquette. Social skills don’t come naturally for children with ADHD. Remind your child to say “hello” and “good-bye”. Remind him that he needs to ask permission when in others homes as well.

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About Article Author

Lawanna Brock
Lawanna Brock

Lawanna Brock is a certified medical writer and a member of the American Medical Writers Association. She is currently working on her Ph.D in Healthy Psychology from an accredited university.

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