Antibiotics Medicine and Anti fungal Medicine - 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th generation Cephalosporins

May 20 15:52 2021 Allen Witt Print This Article

These have a broad spectrum of activity and include the following drugs:

Forcef-CV 500 Tablet, Cetil-CV 500 Tablet, Cefakind-CV 500 Tablet, Zocef-CV 500 Tablet, Zefu 500 Tablet, Cetil 500 Tablet, Zocef 500 Tablet, Ceftum 500mg Tablet, Zocef 250 Tablet, Cefakind 250 Tablet etc

What are Cephalosporins?

Cephalosporins are an outsized group of antibiotics derived from the mold Acremonium (previously called Cephalosporium). Cephalosporins are bactericidal (kill bacteria) and add an identical thanks to penicillins. They bind to and block the activity of enzymes liable for making peptidoglycan,Guest Posting a crucial component of the bacterial cell membrane . they're called broad-spectrum antibiotics because they're effective against a good range of bacteria.

Since the primary cephalosporin was discovered in 1945, scientists are improving the structure of cephalosporinsto form them simpler against a wider range of bacteria. whenever the structure changes, a replacement "generation" of cephalosporins are made. thus far there are five generations of cephalosporins. All cephalosporins start with cef, ceph, or kef. Note that this arrangement isn't used consistently from country to country.

What are cephalosporins used for?

Cephalosporins could also be wont to treat infections caused by susceptible bacteria, such as:

1-Bone infections
2-Ear infections (eg, otitis media)
3-Skin infections
4-Upper tract infections
5-Urinary tract infections.

Cephalosporins aren't usually used as a first-choice antibiotic. they have a tendency to be reserved to be used when other antibiotics (often penicillins) can't be used.

What are the differences between cephalosporins?

There are currently five “generations” of cephalosporins, with each generation differing slightly in their antibacterial spectrum (ie, how effective they're at killing certain sorts of bacteria). Within each generation, there are differences in terms of administration (such as oral or intravenous administration), absorption, excretion, and the way long the activity of the cephalosporin lasts for within the body.

1- First generation cephalosporins-

First generation cephalosporins ask the primary group of cephalosporins discovered. Their optimum activity is against gram-positive bacteria like staphylococci and streptococci. they need little activity against gram-negative bacteria.

Cephalexin and cefadroxil are often given orally , whereas cefazolin can only tend by injection (IV/IM). There also are differences with regards to how frequently the various first-generation cephalosporins got to be dosed.

Generic name examples -

  • cefadroxil
  • cefazolin
  • Ancef, cephadrine
  • Discontinued
  • cephalexin
  • Daxbia

Brand name examples -

  • Duricef
  • Kefzol
  • Keflex


2- Second generation cephalosporins-

Second-generation cephalosporins are more active against gram-negative bacteria, with less activity against gram-positive bacteria.

Generic name

  • cefotetan Cefotan
  • cefoxitin Mefoxin
  • cefprozil Cefzil
  • cefuroxime Ceftin, Zinacef
  • loracarbef Discontinued

3- Third generation cephalosporins -

Third generation cephalosporins followed the second-generation cephalosporins. nobody third-generation cephalosporin treats all communicable disease scenarios.

Cefotaxime and ceftizoxime (discontinued) offer the simplest gram-positive coverage out of all the third-generation agents; ceftazidime and cefoperazone (discontinued) are unique therein they supply antipseudomonal coverage.

Ceftriaxone features a long half-life which allows for once daily dosing and should be used for the treatment of gonorrhea, pelvic disease , and epididymo-orchitis. it's also an alternate to penicillins for suspected meningitis.

All the third-generation cephalosporins apart from cefoperazone (discontinued) penetrate spinal fluid .

Generic name -

  • cefdinir
  • cefditoren
  • cefixime
  • cefoperazone
  • cefotaxime
  • ceftibuten

Brand name examples-

  • Omnicef
  • Spectracef
  • Suprax
  • Discontinued
  • Claforan
  • Tazicef
  • Cedax


4- Fourth generation cephalosporins-

Fourth generation cephalosporins are structurally associated with third-generation cephalosporins but possess an additional ammonium group, which allows them to rapidly penetrate through the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, enhancing their activity. they're also active against β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae which can inactivate third-generation cephalosporins.

Some fourth-generation cephalosporins have excellent activity against gram-positive bacteria like methicillin-susceptible staphylococci, penicillin-resistant pneumococci, and viridans group streptococci.

Cefepime is that the only fourth generation cephalosporin available within the us . Cefpirome is out there overseas.

Generic name- 

  • cefepime

Brand name example

  • Maxipime

Next (fifth) generation cephalosporins-

Ceftaroline is currently the sole next-generation cephalosporin available within the us . it's active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and gram-positive bacteria. It also retains the activity of the later-generation cephalosporins and is effective against susceptible gram-negative bacteria.

Generic name-

  • ceftaroline

Brand name examples-

  • Teflaro

Are cephalosporins safe?
Cephalosporins are generally safe, with low toxicity and good efficacy against susceptible bacteria.

Allergic reactions are reported with cephalosporins and symptoms may include a rash, hives (urticaria), swelling, or rarely, anaphylaxis. Up to 10% of individuals with a history of penicillin allergy also will be allergic to cephalosporins.

Rarely, seizures are reported with some cephalosporins; the danger is greatest in those with renal disorder .

Cephalosporins have also been related to a reduced ability of the blood to clot resulting in prolonged bleeding times. People with kidney or disease , nutritionally deprived, taking cephalosporins long-term, or concurrently receiving anticoagulant therapy are more in danger .

For an entire list of severe side effects, please ask the individual drug monographs.

What are the side effects of cephalosporins?
Cephalosporins generally cause few side effects. the foremost common side effects reported include abdominal pain, diarrhea, dyspepsia, headache, gastritis, and nausea and vomiting. Transient liver problems have also been reported.

Rarely, some people may develop a super-infection thanks to overgrowth of a present bacterium called Clostridium difficile, following use of any antibiotic, including cephalosporins. Symptoms may include severe diarrhea.

Uncommonly, an overgrowth of the yeast, Candida albicans , may occur following cephalosporin use, leading to the symptoms of thrush.

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About Article Author

Allen Witt
Allen Witt

 My name is Allen witt and by the profession i am senior pharmacist. 

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