The teacher in front of teaching-learning strategies

Aug 15 16:09 2019 ElizabethAHalsted Print This Article

Organizing the teaching process in a world with the current changes, in a globalized world, is a task of the educator that sometimes creates uncertainty and dissatisfaction. Today, unlike in previous centuries, the use of teaching and learning strategies revolves around technological advances.

When we ask ourselves about what learning to promote,Guest Posting how to organize teaching and how to evaluate its development in a given context is always a complex task in which it is recognized that the teacher must know when, where and why he uses these teaching strategies.

Similarly, today when we talk about the teaching and learning process, there is a noticeable concern about what is to be taught, and not only that but how it is going to be taught, how are students going to develop skills that allow them to give continuity to the process, hence the need for the student to develop and apply learning strategies without the need to be guided step by step by a teacher, instructor or guide; Now, how does all this develop in the process of Teaching and learning?

Today we can not speak of traditional education as a link of essay help to progress or a model to follow to achieve goals and objectives proposed at different levels both nationally and internationally. As educators, looking beyond the traditional we find changes, which range from the teaching process, the learning process, in the way certain content reaches the students, to how that content is fed back and used to transform our society.

The education, the teaching process, and the learning process, in the current moments, have to be seen beyond a simple instruction; Today it is not the instructor who takes total control of the process, rather the student is the one who drives and motivates part of that process that leads to progress in a future increasingly renewed.

When talking about teaching and learning strategies it is good to know that there is a very marked difference between one and the other, but to speak of one without mentioning the other, is often confusing, why? Why the teaching strategy is used as a means or a resource through which pedagogical help is offered, is applied by an educator, instructor or guide, in the learning process; while the learning strategy internalizes a process in the student since, rather, they are conducts that facilitate learning, and for that they use a large number of resources, activities, and means.

In recent years a large number of studies have focused on the aspect of teaching and learning a foreign language. This shows how some researchers highlight the importance of teaching strategies, identifying them as resources used by the teacher to promote learning. In the same way, Lawrence Stenhouse says:

"I prefer the term teaching strategy to that of teaching methods, ... the teaching strategy seems to allude more to the planning of teaching and learning based on principles, and to give more importance to the judgment of the teacher"
(Encyclopedia of Pedagogy Practice, 2005) .

In the same way, others prefer to present teaching strategies as a set of decisions that the teacher takes to guide teaching in order to promote the learning of their students.

By observing this quote from Lawrence Stenhouse you can immediately identify a work situation where the teacher is planning the teaching and learning of their students. Taking into account that the teacher must apply the strategies as flexible and adaptive procedures to different teaching circumstances. Thus, a great variety of teaching strategies can be identified, but they are classified according to their function or purpose, adapting them to the level of development of the students.

In 1961 Hunt called this the problem of adequacy, based on Piaget's theories. In his, approach Hunt considers that when students experience a certain level of conflict between what they think should happen and what happens they are forced to reconsider their understanding, which allows the development of new knowledge. (Woolfolk, Anita E. 1997)

When we make reference to learning strategies we find the reaction of some representatives of cognitivism, who have expressed that they are fundamental for the management and acquisition of knowledge in our students, but also warn about confusing what would be learning strategies and teaching strategies, for the reason, that the teacher has the responsibility to teach learning strategies.

We also have the dilemma of whether the teacher should teach or not the learning strategies and if at the time of teaching it should be part or not of your class program.

In search of the advances in learning strategies and teaching strategies García, Clemente and Pérez have carried out studies on the evolution and development of learning strategies in Educational Psychology. For this, they have used the Psychological Literature as a bibliographic source. the (APA), (American Psychological Association).

In its publication these authors found a total of 272 articles published from 1984 to 1991 in which the term appears strategies of learning (Learning Strategies), noting a clear expansion of the study of this issue in the second half of the eighties Five articles in 1984 were passed on to thirty-three in 1986 and seventh in 1990. (Fernández Suarez, Ana Patricia). Thus, when observing the most relevant contributions on the subject of learning strategies, we find a wide range of definitions and information with the purpose of defining this concept.

Talking about teaching strategies today implies not only an approach to traditionalist methods and research carried out in the past, but this also implies a look towards the future of teaching and learning. Today with technological advances, teaching strategies go beyond a plan in which guidelines are drawn.

At present, the educator has to take into account that students are characterized by what has been called a virtual mind. The school and the teachers can not ignore the new ways of reading and interpreting the world with which the current students approach the contents and the school tasks.

According to, Caries Monereo identifies and explains some characteristics of this new group:

They handle a variety of resources to obtain information: websites, hard drives, cell phones, virtual communities, etc.; they use and decode different types of language that, moreover, do not appear sequentially, but simultaneously, as animations, photographs, graphics, texts, hypertexts; create new productions from parts of other products (copy-paste); they are relativists par excellence; on the one hand, because the web is permanently updated, and on the other, because all information is considered valid.
For this reason when defining teaching strategies and learning strategies we have to take into account all these factors, which go hand in hand with modern times.

Since previous years, the Teaching Strategies have been considered as procedures that the teaching agent uses in a reflexive and flexible way to promote the achievement of learning in the students. (Mayer, 1984; Shuell, 1988; Farmer & Wolf 1991).

Teaching strategies are also considered as means or resources to provide pedagogical help. For this reason, the teacher must have a broad background of strategies, knowing what function they have and how they can be used appropriately. (Frida, AB & Hernández, RG 1999), other definitions of teaching strategies are based more on teaching, an example of this is the definition presented by Rebeca Anijovich & Sivia Mora when defining teaching strategies as a set of decisions that the teacher takes to guide teaching in order to promote the learning of their students. Here they are presented as general orientations about how to teach content considering what we want our students to understand, why and for what purpose.

According to Nuria Rajadell Puigross, in his article The Formative Processes in the Classroom: Teaching-Learning Strategies; A teaching strategy is equivalent to the potentially conscious sequenced action of the education profession, of the teaching process in its triple dimension of knowledge, know-how and being.

It is important to note that teaching strategies affect students in different ways such as: the content that is transmitted to students, the intellectual work they do, the values that are put into play in the class situation, the way of understanding social, historical, scientific, artistic, cultural content, among others.

At the moment of applying the teaching strategies it is necessary to take into account some aspects or factors, which are defined by Frida Días Barriga as essential aspects, these are:

Consideration of the general characteristics of the apprentices, such as level of cognitive development, emotional factors, previous knowledge.

Type of domain of general knowledge and curricular content in particular.
The intentionality or goal to be achieved and the cognitive and pedagogical activities that the student must do to achieve it.
Constant monitoring of the teaching process, as well as the progress and learning of the students.
Determination of the intersubjective context (example, the knowledge already shared) created with the students until that moment.
Each of these factors constitutes an important argument to identify how and when to use a certain strategy by the teacher.

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