About Aviation

Nov 13 10:53 2017 Relly Victoria Virgil Petrescu Print This Article

Authors: Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu and Relly Victoria Virgil Petrescu

Abstract: A modern flight involves both a great flight quality and high safety throughout. You can’t speak of a quality of flight today unless it provides increased comfort to all passengers in full safety and relaxation. Regardless of the aircraft design type,Guest Posting a minimum level of comfort is required in the passenger cabin so that they feel safe, comfortable, quiet, plus not having the time to get bored if the flight is longer, but to keep constant the sensation of pleasure. For longer journeys, passengers must have the feeling of a vacation and not of a travel that doesn't over. Today, modern ships struggle to provide passengers with extra comfort, who no longer have to look on the walls or on a possible common screen that diffuses a movie that is known or not interesting for passengers as being a bad movie of a bad cinema. Every passenger must have his own laptop, which he can work on, navigate, communicate, or watch a pleasant, personally chosen film so that time passes easily and quickly and the journey being one as special as possible. Another aspect of a successful journey is to ensure increased safety throughout it. This is not easy to accomplish, especially in modern, complicated times, with all sorts of dangers that can occur during a flight. Nor is the fact that the ship is giant, full of people, workers, supervisors, can not completely eliminate all the dangers of a possible terrorist attack on board or from outside the ship, the dangers of air voids, globular lightning, frost, birds, a completely free route ... A large mass of specialists is constantly working to solve these problems. The propulsion system of the ship and its maintenance in the air, are, in the opinion of the authors of this paper, the two essential factors of ensuring one safer flight. For this reason, the paper will focus on the modern propulsion systems of an aircraft and in the most normal way of keeping it in the air. The safest way to keep an airplane in the air known from the oldest to the present day is the use of a navigable airship. On such a flying device, which automatically keeps everything in the air, without the danger of collapsing, with minimal fuel and energy consumption, with great flight safety and high comfort, it is only the problem of the maximum speed of navigation, which may be limited by the high resistance of the aircraft to advance. When we have a pleasure trip, or one on short or medium distances, navigating with airships is always preferred. What can be done when the journey takes place over very long distances and travelers are rushed to arrive at the destination, with the high speed of the aircraft being a priority? At first glance, in such cases, an airship can no longer be used. And yet a modifiable one could be used successfully and in such situations. This is an essential point to be discussed during this work.

Keywords: Aviation, Modern Flight, Flight Quality, High Safety, Some Special Aircraf, Helicopters, Aerospace, Spacecraft Propulsion, US Army, Jet Engines, Airships

 

Introduction

Aviation is the practical aspect or art of aeronautics, being the design, development, production, operation, and use of aircraft, especially heavier than air aircraft. The word aviation was coined by French writer and former naval officer Gabriel La Landelle in 1863, from the verb avier (synonymous flying), itself derived from the Latin word avis ("bird") and the suffix ation.

There are early legends of human flight such as the stories of Icarus in Greek myth and Jamshid in Persian myth. Later, somewhat more credible claims of short-distance human flights appear, such as the flying automaton of Archytas of Tarentum (428–347 BC), the winged flights of Abbas Ibn Firnas (810–887), Eilmer of Malmesbury (11th century), and the hot-air Passarola of Bartholomeu Lourenço de Gusmão (1685–1724).

The modern age of aviation began with the first untethered human lighter-than-air flight on November 21, 1783, of a hot air balloon designed by the Montgolfier brothers. The practicality of balloons was limited because they could only travel downwind. It was immediately recognized that a steerable, or dirigible, a balloon was required. Jean-Pierre Blanchard flew the first human-powered dirigible in 1784 and crossed the English Channel in one in 1785.

Rigid airships became the first aircraft to transport passengers and cargo over great distances. The best-known aircraft of this type were manufactured by the German Zeppelin company.

The most successful Zeppelin was the Graf Zeppelin. It flew over one million miles, including an around-the-world flight in August 1929. However, the dominance of the Zeppelins over the airplanes of that period, which had a range of only a few hundred miles, was diminishing as airplane design advanced. The "Golden Age" of the airships ended on May 6, 1937, when the Hindenburg caught fire, killing 36 people. The cause of the Hindenburg accident was initially blamed on the use of hydrogen instead of helium as the lift gas. An internal investigation by the manufacturer revealed that the coating used in the material covering the frame was highly flammable and allowed static electricity to build up in the airship. Changes to the coating formulation reduced the risk of further Hindenburg type accidents. Although there have been periodic initiatives to revive their use, airships have seen only niche application since that time.

Methods and Materials

LZ 127 the Zeppelin Grade (D-LZ 127) was a rigid aircraft, built only in Germany, for the purpose of carrying passengers powered by hydrogen as it was at that time, which operated commercially between 1928-1937. When he entered the commercial service in 1928, he became the first passenger transatlantic passenger service in the world. The name of the aircraft came from the German pioneer of aircraft, Ferdinand von Zeppelin, German nobleman. During its operating period, the airship made 590 flights covering more than 1.7 million kilometers (over 1 million miles) of flight, extremely much for an air pioneer who was still created with not very special materials and its filling being made with hydrogen, a highly flammable gas. The ship was designed to be operated by a crew of 36 officers (men). The LZ 127 was the longest rigid aircraft at the time of its completion, being exceeded only by the USS Akron in 1931. It was dismantled for combat aircraft parts in 1940, in the Second World War (The Graf Zeppelin).

Zeppelin made his first flight on September 18, 1928, under the command of Hugo Eckener. The ship took off at 3:32 and flew just over three hours before returning to its base in Friedrichshafen.

A series of successful flights followed, including a 34 and a half hour endurance flight, during which the new German ship was presented to the residents of Ulm, Flensburg, Hamburg, Berlin, Leipzig and Dresden.

Zeppelin's chart made its first commercial passenger trip over the Atlantic, leaving Friedrichshafen at 7:54 on October 11, 1928 and landed at Lakehurst, New Jersey on October 15, 1928, after a flight of 111 hours and 44 minutes. The ship has transported 40 crew members under Hugo Eckener's command and 20 passengers, including US naval officer Charles E. Rosendahl and Hearst newspaper reporter Lady Grace Drummond-Hay.

 

The first transatlantic crossing of the ship was to end in disaster due to a strong storm on the morning of October 13th. Captain Eckener had entered unusual in the storm at maximum power and speed of the aircraft (it was known that the speed had to be reduced in adverse weather conditions) and the ship had risen in altitude violently because of the unexpected storm and the inexperienced crew member in charge of steering the altitude of the ship (the R-38 and USS Shenandoah airships have broken under similar circumstances), but the commander managed to control the ship and recover it on time, rapidly and very much reducing its travel speed.

Eckener and his officers were able to re-establish control of the ship as soon as their speed had fallen, but they soon found out that the lower wing coverage was broken by the wind, threatening additional damage that would make the ship uncontrollable. Eckener immediately sent a four-man repair team (including his son, Knut Eckener, senior elevator man and future zeppelin commander Albert Sammt and Ludwig Knorr, who will become chief executive on the LZ-129 Hindenburg) to repair the cover even in flight. At the same time, Eckener made the difficult decision to send a distress call, knowing he was in jeopardy for his ship's reputation. The distress signal was soon taken over by the press and newspapers around the world had the opportunity to tell sensational facts about the prolonged destruction of Graf Zeppelin, which happened during his trip over the Atlantic.

Emergency repairs were successful, but the ship encountered a second event, a new storm just ahead of Bermuda. The Zeppelin managed to cross the second storm even though it had a temporarily repaired wing, which has again deteriorated on the occasion of the second storm and managed to reach the US coast on the morning of October 15. After a roundabout from Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia and New York, to show Zeppelin Graf to the American public, Eckener brought the ship damaged by a safe landing at the United States naval base at Lakehurst, New Jersey on the evening of the 15th October 1928. The Zeppelin chart was delayed, damaged and had just finished the food and water supplies, but Eckener, his crew and passengers were greeted as heroes with a band parade across Broadway in New York City. Always materials used to build aircraft have been a priority (Aversa et al., 2017a-e; 2016a-o; Mirsayar et al., 2017). But at that time, there were no possibilities of today in creating of materials.

The first crossing of the Atlantic in a crewed flight, using a navigable, demonstrated that such a ship can keep on flying even under extremely difficult conditions. Apart from the fact that the ship entered the first storm at very high speed, totally unprepared and poorly coordinated, a major problem was the used material that has been broken in front of a very strong wind (extremely high winds).

 

Results

In 1799, Sir George Cayley set forth the concept of the modern airplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift, propulsion, and control. Early dirigible developments included machine-powered propulsion (Henri Giffard, 1852), rigid frames (David Schwarz, 1896) and improved speed and maneuverability (Alberto Santos-Dumont, 1901).

There are many competing claims for the earliest powered, heavier-than-air flight. The first recorded powered flight was carried out by Clément Ader on October 9, 1890, in his bat-winged, fully self-propelled fixed-wing aircraft, the Ader Éole. It was reportedly the first manned, powered, heavier-than-air flight of a significant distance (50 m (160 ft)) but insignificant altitude from level ground. Seven years later, on 14 October 1897, Ader's Avion III was tested without success in front of two officials from the French War Ministry. The report on the trials was not publicized until 1910, as they had been a military secret. In November 1906 Ader claimed to have made a successful flight on 14 October 1897, achieving an "uninterrupted flight" of around 300 meters (980 feet). Although widely believed at the time, these claims were later discredited.

The Wright brothers made the first successful powered, controlled and sustained airplane flight on December 17, 1903, a feat made possible by their invention of three-axis control. Only a decade later, at the start of World War I, heavier-than-air powered aircraft had become practical for reconnaissance, artillery spotting, and even attacks against ground positions.

Aircraft began to transport people and cargo as designs grew larger and more reliable. The Wright brothers took aloft the first passenger, Charles Furnas, one of their mechanics, on May 14, 1908.

During the 1920s and 1930s great progress was made in the field of aviation, including the first transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown in 1919, Charles Lindbergh's solo transatlantic flight in 1927, and Charles Kingsford Smith's transpacific flight the following year. One of the most successful designs of this period was the Douglas DC-3, which became the first airliner to be profitable carrying passengers exclusively, starting the modern era of passenger airline service. By the beginning of World War II, many towns and cities had built airports, and there were numerous qualified pilots available. The war brought many innovations to aviation, including the first jet aircraft and the first liquid-fueled rockets.

After World War II, especially in North America, there was a boom in general aviation, both private and commercial, as thousands of pilots were released from military service and much inexpensive war-surplus transport and training aircraft became available. Manufacturers such as Cessna, Piper, and Beechcraft expanded production to provide light aircraft for the new middle-class market.

By the 1950s, the development of civil jets grew, beginning with the de Havilland Comet, though the first widely used passenger jet was the Boeing 707 because it was much more economical than other aircraft at that time. At the same time, turboprop propulsion began to appear for smaller commuter planes, making it possible to serve small-volume routes in a much wider range of weather conditions.

Since the 1960s composite material airframes and quieter, more efficient engines have become available, and Concorde provided supersonic passenger service for more than two decades, but the most important lasting innovations have taken place in instrumentation and control. The arrival of solid-state electronics, the Global Positioning System, satellite communications, and increasingly small and powerful computers and LED displays, have dramatically changed the cockpits of airliners and, increasingly, of smaller aircraft as well. Pilots can navigate much more accurately and view terrain, obstructions, and other nearby aircraft on a map or through synthetic vision, even at night or in low visibility.

On June 21, 2004, SpaceShipOne became the first privately funded aircraft to make a spaceflight, opening the possibility of an aviation market capable of leaving the Earth's atmosphere. Meanwhile, flying prototypes of aircraft powered by alternative fuels, such as ethanol, electricity, and even solar energy, are becoming more common.

Discussion

There are five major manufacturers of civil transport aircraft (in alphabetical order):

    Airbus, based in Europe

    Boeing, based in the United States

    Bombardier, based in Canada

    Embraer, based in Brazil

    United Aircraft Corporation, based in Russia

Boeing, Airbus, Ilyushin, and Tupolev concentrate on wide-body and narrow-body jet airliners, while Bombardier, Embraer, and Sukhoi concentrate on regional airliners. Large networks of specialized parts suppliers from around the world support these manufacturers, who sometimes provide only the initial design and final assembly in their own plants. The Chinese ACAC consortium will also soon enter the civil transport market with its Comac ARJ21 regional jet.

Until the 1970s, most major airlines were flag carriers, sponsored by their governments and heavily protected from competition. Since then, open skies agreements have resulted in increased competition and choice for consumers, coupled with falling prices for airlines. The combination of high fuel prices, low fares, high salaries, and crises such as September 11, 2001, attacks and the SARS epidemic have driven many older airlines to government-bailouts, bankruptcy or mergers. At the same time, low-cost carriers such as Ryanair, Southwest, and Westjet have flourished.

General aviation includes all non-scheduled civil flying, both private and commercial. General aviation may include business flights, air charter, private aviation, flight training, ballooning, parachuting, gliding, hang gliding, aerial photography, foot-launched powered hang gliders, air ambulance, crop dusting, charter flights, traffic reporting, police air patrols and forest firefighting.

Each country regulates aviation differently, but general aviation usually falls under different regulations depending on whether it is private or commercial and on the type of equipment involved.

Many small aircraft manufacturers serve the general aviation market, with a focus on private aviation and flight training.

The most important recent developments for small aircraft (which form the bulk of the GA fleet) have been the introduction of advanced avionics (including GPS) that were formerly found only in large airliners, and the introduction of composite materials to make small aircraft lighter and faster. Ultralight and homebuilt aircraft have also become increasingly popular for recreational use since in most countries that allow private aviation, they are much less expensive and less heavily regulated than certified aircraft.

Simple balloons were used as surveillance aircraft as early as the 18th century. Over the years, military aircraft have been built to meet ever-increasing capability requirements. Manufacturers of military aircraft compete for contracts to supply their government's arsenal. Aircraft are selected based on factors like cost, performance, and the speed of production.

Conclusion

In this paper it is proposed to return to modern airships, equipped with modern technologies, with special flying machines, with special resistant materials, loaded with helium, an inert gas.

Their great advantage is that they can keep themselves alone in the air without high energy consumption, or other devices.

 

References

Aviation, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aviation

Military aviation, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_aviation

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Berto, F., Gagani, A., Petrescu, RV., Petrescu, FIT., 2017 A Review of the Fatigue Strength of Load Carrying Shear Welded Joints, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 10(1):1-12.

Petrescu, RV., Aversa, R.,  Akash, B., Bucinell, R., Corchado, J., Berto, F., Mirsayar, MM., Apicella, A., Petrescu, FIT., 2017 Anthropomorphic Solid Structures n-R Kinematics, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 10(1): 279-291.

Aversa, R., Petrescu, RV., Akash, B., Bucinell, R., Corchado, J., Berto, F., Mirsayar, MM., Chen, G., Li, S., Apicella, A., Petrescu, FIT., 2017 Something about the Balancing of Thermal Motors, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 10(1):200-217.

Petrescu, RV., Aversa, R., Akash, B., Bucinell, R., Corchado, J., Berto, F., Mirsayar, MM., Apicella, A., Petrescu, FIT., 2017 Inverse Kinematics at the Anthropomorphic Robots, by a Trigonometric Method, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(2): 394-411.

Petrescu, RV., Aversa, R., Akash, B., Bucinell, R., Corchado, J., Berto, F., Mirsayar, MM., Calautit, JK., Apicella, A., Petrescu, FIT., 2017 Forces at Internal Combustion Engines, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(2): 382-393.

Petrescu, RV., Aversa, R., Akash, B., Bucinell, R., Corchado, J., Berto, F., Mirsayar, MM., Apicella, A., Petrescu, FIT., 2017 Gears-Part I, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(2): 457-472.

Petrescu, RV., Aversa, R., Akash, B., Bucinell, R., Corchado, J., Berto, F., Mirsayar, MM., Apicella, A., Petrescu, FIT., 2017 Gears-Part II, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(2): 473-483.

Petrescu, RV., Aversa, R., Akash, B., Bucinell, R., Corchado, J., Berto, F., Mirsayar, MM., Apicella, A., Petrescu, FIT., 2017 Cam-Gears Forces, Velocities, Powers and Efficiency, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(2): 491-505.

Aversa, R., Petrescu, RV., Apicella, A., Petrescu, FIT., 2017 A Dynamic Model for Gears, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(2): 484-490.

Petrescu, RV., Aversa, R., Akash, B., Bucinell, R., Corchado, J., Berto, F., Mirsayar, MM., Kosaitis, S., Abu-Lebdeh, T., Apicella, A., Petrescu, FIT., 2017 Dynamics of Mechanisms with Cams Illustrated in the Classical Distribution, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(2): 551-567.

Petrescu, RV., Aversa, R., Akash, B., Bucinell, R., Corchado, J., Berto, F., Mirsayar, MM., Kosaitis, S., Abu-Lebdeh, T., Apicella, A., Petrescu, FIT., 2017 Testing by Non-Destructive Control, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(2): 568-583.

Petrescu, RV., Aversa, R., Li, S., Mirsayar, MM., Bucinell, R., Kosaitis, S., Abu-Lebdeh, T., Apicella, A., Petrescu, FIT., 2017 Electron Dimensions, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(2): 584-602.

Petrescu, RV., Aversa, R., Kozaitis, S., Apicella, A., Petrescu, FIT., 2017 Deuteron Dimensions, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(3).

Petrescu RV., Aversa R., Apicella A., Petrescu FIT., 2017 Transportation Engineering, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(3).

Petrescu RV., Aversa R., Kozaitis S., Apicella A., Petrescu FIT., 2017 Some Proposed Solutions to Achieve Nuclear Fusion, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(3).

Petrescu RV., Aversa R., Kozaitis S., Apicella A., Petrescu FIT., 2017 Some Basic Reactions in Nuclear Fusion, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(3).

Petrescu, Relly Victoria; Aversa, Raffaella; Akash, Bilal; Bucinell, Ronald; Corchado, Juan; Berto, Filippo; Mirsayar, MirMilad; Apicella, Antonio; Petrescu, Florian Ion Tiberiu; 2017a Modern Propulsions for Aerospace-A Review, Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology, 1(1).

Petrescu, Relly Victoria; Aversa, Raffaella; Akash, Bilal; Bucinell, Ronald; Corchado, Juan; Berto, Filippo; Mirsayar, MirMilad; Apicella, Antonio; Petrescu, Florian Ion Tiberiu; 2017b Modern Propulsions for Aerospace-Part II, Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology, 1(1).

Petrescu, Relly Victoria; Aversa, Raffaella; Akash, Bilal; Bucinell, Ronald; Corchado, Juan; Berto, Filippo; Mirsayar, MirMilad; Apicella, Antonio; Petrescu, Florian Ion Tiberiu; 2017c History of Aviation-A Short Review, Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology, 1(1).

Petrescu, Relly Victoria; Aversa, Raffaella; Akash, Bilal; Bucinell, Ronald; Corchado, Juan; Berto, Filippo; Mirsayar, MirMilad; Apicella, Antonio; Petrescu, Florian Ion Tiberiu; 2017d Lockheed Martin-A Short Review, Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology, 1(1).

Petrescu, Relly Victoria; Aversa, Raffaella; Akash, Bilal; Corchado, Juan; Berto, Filippo; Mirsayar, MirMilad; Apicella, Antonio; Petrescu, Florian Ion Tiberiu; 2017e Our Universe, Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology, 1(1).

Petrescu, Relly Victoria; Aversa, Raffaella; Akash, Bilal; Corchado, Juan; Berto, Filippo; Mirsayar, MirMilad; Apicella, Antonio; Petrescu, Florian Ion Tiberiu; 2017f What is a UFO?, Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology, 1(1).

Petrescu, RV., Aversa, R., Akash, B., Corchado, J., Berto, F., Mirsayar, MM., Apicella, A., Petrescu, FIT., 2017 About Bell Helicopter FCX-001 Concept Aircraft-A Short Review, Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology, 1(1).

Petrescu, RV., Aversa, R., Akash, B., Corchado, J., Berto, F., Mirsayar, MM., Apicella, A., Petrescu, FIT., 2017 Home at Airbus, Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology, 1(1).

Petrescu, RV., Aversa, R., Akash, B., Corchado, J., Berto, F., Mirsayar, MM., Kozaitis, S., Abu-Lebdeh, T., Apicella, A., Petrescu, FIT., 2017 Airlander, Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology, 1(1).

Petrescu, RV., Aversa, R., Akash, B., Corchado, J., Berto, F., Apicella, A., Petrescu, FIT., 2017 When Boeing is Dreaming – a Review, Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology, 1(1).

History of aviation, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_aviation

History of ballooning, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_ballooning

Airship, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airship

 

 

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About Article Author

Relly Victoria Virgil Petrescu
Relly Victoria Virgil Petrescu

Ph.D. Eng. Relly Victoria V. PETRESCU

Senior Lecturer at UPB (Bucharest Polytechnic University), Transport, Traffic and Logistics department,

Citizenship: Romanian;

Date of birth: March.13.1958;

Higher education: Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Faculty of Transport, Road Vehicles Department, graduated in 1982, with overall average 9.50;

Doctoral Thesis: "Contributions to analysis and synthesis of mechanisms with bars and sprocket".

Expert in Industrial Design, Engineering Mechanical Design, Engines Design, Mechanical Transmissions, Projective and descriptive geometry, Technical drawing, CAD, Automotive engineering, Vehicles, Transportations.

Association:

Member ARoTMM, IFToMM, SIAR, FISITA, SRR, SORGING, AGIR.

 

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