Evaluating the Flattening Test for Seamless Steel Pipes

Feb 14


chase Liu

chase Liu

  • Share this article on Facebook
  • Share this article on Twitter
  • Share this article on Linkedin

Seamless steel pipes are integral to various industries, and their performance is critical. The flattening test is a key quality control measure that assesses a pipe's durability and resistance to deformation under pressure. This article delves into the methodologies and protocols involved in conducting a flattening test on seamless steel pipes, ensuring they meet the necessary standards for hardness, melting point, corrosion resistance, and pressure tolerance.

Understanding the Flattening Test

The flattening test is a destructive mechanical test that evaluates the ductility and strength of seamless steel pipes,Evaluating the Flattening Test for Seamless Steel Pipes Articles such as those conforming to ASTM A106 GR.B standards. This test is crucial for applications where pipes are subjected to compressive forces or need to maintain integrity under varying pressures.

Sample Preparation

  1. Selection and Cutting: A sample is extracted from any section of the seamless steel pipe that has passed visual inspection. The sample must represent the full circumference of the pipe.
  2. Sample Size: The length of the sample should be at least 10mm and not exceed 100mm. Edges may be rounded or chamfered, although this is not mandatory if the test results are satisfactory.
  3. Cutting Orientation: The sample is cut perpendicular to the pipe's longitudinal axis, ensuring the cut encompasses at least 80% of the pipe's outer diameter.

Test Equipment

The equipment used for the flattening test includes a testing machine or a press with the following specifications:

  • Parallel Pressure Plates: The machine must have two parallel plates wider than the sample (at least 1.6 times the pipe diameter) and at least as long as the sample itself.
  • Pressure Capability: The machine should be capable of applying sufficient force to flatten the sample to the required distance between the plates.
  • Rigidity and Speed Control: The pressure plates must be rigid, and the machine should allow for speed control within the test's requirements.

Test Conditions and Procedures

  1. Temperature and Speed: The test is typically conducted at room temperature (10°C to 35°C), with a controlled test temperature of 23°C ± 5°C when necessary. The flattening speed should range from 20-50mm/min, with a maximum of 25mm/min in disputed cases.
  2. Platen Distance (H): The distance between the pressure plates under force, denoted as H in millimeters, must be determined based on relevant standards or mutual agreement.

The sample is placed between the pressure plates, and force is applied radially at a uniform speed not exceeding 50mm/min until the sample is flattened to the specified distance H. After removing the load, the sample is inspected for any defects or fractures.

Note: The flattening distance H should be measured while the sample is under load. For a conclusive test, the inner surface of the sample should contact at least half of the inner width of the standard sample after flattening.

Statistical Insights and Industry Standards

The flattening test is governed by various standards, including ASTM A106 for carbon steel pipes, which specifies the test's parameters. According to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the flattening test is a mandatory procedure for certain grades of steel pipes to ensure their compliance with industry standards for quality and safety.

While specific data on flattening test results is proprietary to manufacturers, industry-wide statistics indicate a high compliance rate with ASTM standards, reflecting the effectiveness of these tests in quality assurance. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) reports that advancements in steelmaking technology have led to improved pipe ductility, which enhances performance in flattening tests.

For further information on the ASTM A106 standard and its requirements, you can visit the ASTM International website.


The flattening test is a critical assessment for seamless steel pipes, ensuring they can withstand the pressures and stresses of their intended applications. By adhering to strict testing protocols and industry standards, manufacturers can guarantee the reliability and safety of their steel pipe products.